application of seismic reflection method

Oil and gas exploration and engineering studies in water‐covered areas routinely use continuous seismic profiling techniques to obtain subsurface geologic information. If our conclusion is correct, this locality might be another favourable site for gold mineralization. This feature extends downwards from -100 m to -1200 m. The shallow seismic profile beneath lines 14 and 15 shows that a contact region exists between the wall strata and a pipe-like object, which extends downwards from -450 m to -600 m. A crush zone occurs along this pipe-like object. For this reason, it has become the method of choice for the subsurface investigation of sedimentary basins, particularly for petroleum exploration. Seismic Refraction. 1.1.3 This guide will focus on the seismic-reflection method as it is applied to the near surface. We present a method to estimate elastic parameter contrasts Typical applications of seismic reflection include: For more information, please contact our Ground Survey Team. The average gold abundance is 13.45 × 10-6 with the highest value being 24.88 × 10-6. The shallow seismic exploration method has been used extensively in petroleum exploration and geological engineering, but whether or not it is suitable for solid-ore exploration is still uncertain since solid ore deposits are usually irregularly shaped. This article presents a description of the lithology and weathered features of the subsurface under Qiaozhuang Town through a 2-D interpretation based on a shallow seismic reflection geophysical survey. The aim of the study was to test the feasibility and suitability of the shallow seismic exploration method in exploiting other solid ores. However, whether or not it is suitable for solid-ore exploration is still speculative since solid ore deposits usually occur as irregularly shaped bodies (e.g., gold deposits outcrop as veins, keels and other shapes). The shallow seismic exploration method has been used extensively in petroleum exploration and geological engineering, but whether or not it is suitable for solid-ore exploration is still uncertain since solid ore deposits are usually irregularly shaped. In interpretation of seismic data the resolution and smoothness of the envelope of the seismic trace is an important property to have. Unique features of the seismic reflection method applicable to shallow engineering, groundwater, and environmental projects are described and recent applications are illustrated. Containment of the air-blast is essential in shallow reflection work. In this research the seismic reflection method has been used and studied to address problems associated with hardrock settings. Therefore, due to the complexity of the geological processes involved, in the course of exploration for solid mineral resources, especially gold and copper, there are several factors that must be very carefully considered. Among these is the ENE-trending fault, F1, which traverses the whole area and has played an important role in the formation and development of the mineralization. It is necessary to increase the resolution of the seismic data in order to carry out solid-ore investigations into gold, silver, copper and other mineral resources. The lack of a reliable method for estimating Q from reflection seismic data is an issue when utilizing the Q value for hydrocarbon detection. Since 1980, it has been increasingly used in applications shallower than 30 m, and that is the principal subject of this paper. Guanghao Chen, Guanghe Liang, Deru Xu, Qiaosong Zeng, Shouhui Fu, Xiangrong Wei, Zhuanli He, Gonggu Fu, Application of a shallow seismic reflection method to the exploration of a gold deposit, Journal of Geophysics and Engineering, Volume 1, Issue 1, March 2004, Pages 12–16, https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-2132/1/1/002. This fault is considered as an ore-hosting conduit of the Yangji-Shan gold deposit. Shallow reflection surveys The shallow reflection method is by far the most effective geophysical technique for detailed and reliable imaging of the subsurface structure. Cryptoexplosive breccias (NQδμ); 7. The results of two seismic exploration profiles (RJ and JB) are illustrated in figures 3 and 4, respectively. Quartz dioritic porphyrite (Qδμ); 6. Application to seismic records 4.1. The detailed procedure for data processing is summarized in figure 2. Two-shot reverse profiling seismic refraction was conducted in the targeted areas. The drill hole ZK14–4 is located on line 14 and the drilling depth is 308.58 m. Sulfide ores in cryptoexplosive breccias are encountered at depths of 233.35–237.90 m (corresponding to altitudes of -165.87 to -170.43 m). Seismic method is one of the main tools of assessing fault activity. search for low velocity zones using reflection seismic, so that the vulnerable locations causing earthquakes in the area are obtained. The successful application of the shallow seismic exploration method to the Yangji-Shan gold deposit in south China demonstrates that the determination of subsurface structure and potential orebodies is possible using this technique. Seismic stratigraphy represents a coherent method for the analysis of sedimentary basin fills. Additionally, since the 1980’s, significant strides have been made in both near-surface seismic reflection surveying and in the development of shallow-seismic refraction methods. The weak zone in the subsurface structure can be modeled by using seismic reflection method based on the wave propagation properties that can reflect in a certain It also provides more accurate velocity parameters determined from a common-midpoint gather. FA is still active in the Tertiary and along the fracture zone where the Tertiary basaltic magmas erupted. Application of the Seismic Reflection Method in Mineral Exploration and Crustal Imaging: Contributions to Hardrock Seismic Imaging September 2015 Thesis for: PhD The seismic reflection method has been used extensively in mineral exploration and for imaging crustal structures within hardrock environments. Application of an undulatory method of reflection seismics to the biomedical field September 2020 : Physical Review Applied publishes the article "Seismic Imaging Method for Medical Ultrasound Systems" where the CRS4 Imaging and Numerical Geophysics group successfully validates the idea of applying an undulatory method of reflection seismics to the biomedical field . Moreover, interlayered crush zones and lateral fractures of the trunk faults are also well developed. 95% of the water used for human production and living comes from groundwater. The seismic reflection method involves inducing a seismic wave into the earth and recording the waves that are reflected from sub-surface layers. Pilot seismic reflection profile - measurement, processing, interpretation The shallow seismic reflection method (especially its CDP variation) was introduced into practical work in solving engineering assignments only a few years ago. A heterogeneous approach without nodes at the interface is chosen to solve the problem in heterogeneous media. It states that “the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection”. Originally used solely as a resource exploration tool, the seismic method now routinely contributes to coal-mine design and development. Each lens is about 20 m long and 5–8 m wide. 1.1.3 This guide will focus on the seismic-reflection method as it is applied to the near surface. A quartz dioritic porphyrite intrusion, 1–2 m wide, outcrops on the surface along line 16. APPLICATION OF THE SEISMIC REFLECTION METHOD TO ABANDONED MINE DETECTION IN ÓBIDOS, PORTUGAL João Carvalho1, Luís Torres1, Carlos Galhano2 and Luís Mendes-Victor3 1 Instituto Geológico e Mineiro, Estrada da Portela-Zambujal, 2720-461 Amadora 2 Universidade Nova, Monte da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica 3 Centro Geofísica Universidade de Lisboa, Rua da Escola Politécnica, 58, … using seismic refraction, surface-wave methods) and the presence of geological layers due to their seismic reflectivity (e.g. Seismic Reflection and Refraction Methods A. K. Chaubey National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa-403 004. chaubey@nio.org Introduction Seismic reflection and refraction is the principal seismic method by which the petroleum industry explores hydrocarbon-trapping structures in sedimentary basins. Conclusi on The seismic reflection survey method has been. However, it is unclear whether the eastern peripheral areas are suitable for gold mineralization and exploration. The seismic refraction method utilizes the refraction of seismic waves by rock or soil layers to characterize the subsurface geologic conditions and geologic structure. This law is utilized in the seismic reflection method. The seismic reflection method is a powerful technique for underground exploration that has been in use for over 60 years (see Waters, 1987; Dobrin, 1976; Coffee% 1978). 3. The area of gold mineralization is about 1 km long in the E–W direction and about 0.4 km wide in the N–S direction. Second, the selection of shallow seismic profiles, which relies on the fundamental geology, is critical. However, the accuracy of these geological interpretations is always affected by certain factors, for example, the arrangement of the field observation system, the method of primary data collection, the method of data processing and the selection of parameters. In the drill hole ZK13–1, the gold orebody is about 7 m thick and occurs between 113.76–121.04 m. The average gold abundance is 1.9 × 10-6 where the highest value is 10 × 10-6. Upper Devonian (D3); 4. 2. This method of seismic refraction is common and provides a depth to bedrock under each shot location. Geographically, this is about 2 km east of Rui-Chang County, Jiangxi Province. Vertical seismic profiling (commonly abbreviated to the name VSP) is a major technique in geophysical exploration, which involves measuring downgoing and upgoing seismic wavefields through a stratigraphic sequence. Application of Seismic Reflection Surveys to Detect Massive Sulphide Deposits in Sediments-Hosted Environment Okan Evans Onojasun Department of Exploration Geophysics, Curtin University of Technology Abstract: Seismic reflection techniques, the most widely used geophysical method for hydrocarbon exploration This can attenuate multiples and various interference waves, and hence greatly improve the signal-to-noise ratio of a seismic profile. Seismic reflection is generally applicable to depths greater than 80 to 100 feet, and is widely used on land to map a variety of deep features (e.g., stratigraphy, faults). The strikes of the Palaeozoic strata vary, following the regional structural line (figure 1). This section focuses on the tectono-metallogenic process, i.e. The seismic reflection method involves inducing a seismic wave into the earth and recording the waves that are reflected from sub-surface layers. In the decades since seismic The width of the intrusion increases gradually downwards and is also sack-like; it clearly intrudes into the structural crush zone. 1. Finally, seismic results must be compared with real mining data to test the feasibility of the developed shallow seismic exploration technique. There are P-wave reflection and shear-wave splitting methods when active fault is investigated using seismic methods. The drilling data can be used to divide the bedrock lithology and confirm the geophysical results. 12/8/16. Variations in field techniques are required depending on depth. Not long afterwards, regarding the manner and the circumstances of the bauxite deposits occur- Below -600 m, Silurian sandstones occur in this region. Application of seismic reflection techniques for imaging sedimentary hosted massive sulphide is relatively new and the few experiment carried out have are at local scale [3] In this report, we extend the work of [3] by applying seismic reflection surveys for detecting massive sulphide deposits in sediment hosted environment at larger scale were the deposit may be located within 5km or more. The Yangji-Shan gold deposit is located in the southern Yangtze block in south China, adjacent to the boundary between the Yangtze and Cathaysian blocks. ENE-to NE-trending fractures are predominant in the ore area with minor NW- and near-NS-trending faults. Application of seismic reflection wave method in high water content sand-layered dike detection. The application of this shallow seismic exploration method to the Yangji-Shan gold deposit in south China is, however, an example of a successful attempt to determine subsurface structure and find potential orebodies using the technique. Later tectonic activity along fault F1 resulted in the structural deformation of the orebodies and might have displaced the existing orebodies into several segments. Seismic Reflection Methods 1. It is reasonable to infer that such a crush zone associated with cryptoexplosive breccias might be a favourable site for gold deposition. According to three-dimensional analysis, orebody number 5 outcrops in a lenticular shape, declining from east to west. Reflection seismology is used extensively in a number of fields and its applications can be categorised into three groups, each defined by their depth of investigation: Search for other works by this author on: Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Beijing 100037, China, Preliminary research on the tectono-metallogeny in the Yangji-Shan gold deposit and its prospecting, Ore-controlling structure of the Yangji-Shan gold deposit in Jiangxi and ore-searching indicator, Model of copper and gold metallogenic series in Jiujiang-Ruichang area, Jiangxi, Iron-Copper(Gold) Metallogenic Laws in the Middle-Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River, Enrichment laws of gold in the Yangji-Shan cryptoexplosive breccia-type gold deposit, Jiangxi, © 2004 Nanjing Institute of Geophysical Prospecting, The effects of tool eccentricity on individual P and S head waves in monopole acoustic LWD, Upper Cretaceous paleoenvironmental changes and petrophysical responses in lacustrine record (Songliao Basin, NE China) and marine sedimentary deposit (Goban Spur Basin, NW Europe), Data-driven method for an improved linearised AVO inversion, Evaluating the effect of EPBM operational parameters on surface settlement in soft ground, Estimation of weak anisotropy parameters and fracture density of asymmetric fractures in monoclinic medium, About Journal of Geophysics and Engineering, About Sinopec Geophysical Research Institute, 2 Geological and metallogenic conditions of the Yangji-Shan gold deposit, https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-2132/1/1/002, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Copyright © 2021 Sinopec Geophysical Research Institute. Shallow seismic profile above -600 m altitude for line RJ and the interpreted image (exploration line 10). Orebody (Au); 9. Application of the three-component shallow seismic reflection method to probing buried active faults: LIU Bao-Jin 1, ZHAO Cheng-Bin 1, FENG Shao-Ying 1, YANG Xiao-Ping 2, HE Yin-Juan 1, LI Wen 1, ZUO Ying 1, KOU Kun-Peng 1: 1. Due to the high vertical and lateral resolution The method requires a controlled seismic source of energy, such as dynamite, a specialized air gun or a seismic vibrator, commonly known by the trademark name Vibroseis. 2. The theory is identical, but the acquisition and processing parameters are adjusted to provide a higher resolution at shallow depths. Application of the technique to data from a deep seis-mic reflection experiment enhanced the visibility of all reflectors considerably. But, in using reflection seismology for oil and gas exploration, we have to deploy some kind of an acceptable energy source on the surface of the Earth and … Seismic‐reflection profiling also was used to determine the extent and thickness of recent lake‐bottom deposits in two Connecticut lakes. We have applied the shallow seismic exploration method in this area with the aim of locating and investigating new mineral resources and potential gold ores. Middle-Lower Triassic (T2-T1); 3. This technique does, however, have other applications on a smaller scale, such as for civil engineering project site investigation. Due to the high vertical and lateral resolution Common-Offset Seismic Reflection Method A technique for obtaining one-fold reflection data is called the common-offset method or common-offset gather (COG). Using basic geological observations, we attempt to interpret geologically the seismic profiles obtained, which show various lithological interfaces. The use of seismic reflection surveys for targets shallower than 30 m has not been widespread until the 1980’s, however. The upper right-hand figure shows the section after improving the resolution. An application of a combined refraction-reflection seismic method to a landslide study / BALIA R.; DEIDDA G. P.; RANIERI G.. - (1996), pp. for seismic reflector characterisation: method and application N. Maercklin, A. Zollo RISSC, Italy Abstract: Elastic parameters derived from seismic reflection data provide information on the lithological contrast at an interface and support the geolo-gical interpretation. The application of this shallow seismic exploration method to the Yangji-Shan gold deposit in south China is, however, an example of a successful attempt to determine subsurface structure and find potential orebodies using the technique. The seismic-reflection method is a powerful geophysical exploration method that has been in widespread use in the petroleum industry for more than 60 years. Success is greatly increased if shots and phones are near or in the saturated zone. This is possibly a contact zone between cryptoexplosive breccias (or quartz dioritic porphyrites) and sedimentary strata. The shallow seismic exploration procedure is principally divided into the following three stages: data acquisition, processing and interpretation. The combined results indicate that the gold mineralization of the Yangji-Shan deposit is closely related to a volcanic structure (a volcanic channel). According to the general metallogenic characteristics of the Yangji-Shan gold deposit, such a crush zone, intruded by dioritic porphyrites, is a favourable site for gold mineralization and deposition. First, study of the metallogenic and geological conditions is important. Structural analyses from previous studies (Zhang 1992, Chen et al 1999) have shown that the Yangji-Shan gold deposit lies on the southern flank of the Dachong–Dingjiashan compound anticline (figure 1). It is separated from the Niaoshijie-Saihu faulting basin by ENE-trending faults. Seismic reflection is ideal for mapping geology at depths exceeding 50 m. Deep seismic reflection surveying is the most advanced technique in geophysics today, thanks to its application on a huge scale for oil and gas exploration. In combination with the study of regional metallogeneic characteristics, shallow seismic exploration can provide a potential approach to locating and exploring solid mineral resources. This conclusion is in good agreement with the results of gold-abundance contouring in the area. Even when the signal to noise ratio is − 10 dB, this novel method still be able to clearly recover signals. Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Guangzhou 510640, China. Because the recognition technique cannot produce an estimate of “missing” data, it is extended with a recon-struction method. 761 Application of modern 2-D and 3-D seismic- reflection techniques for uranium exploration in the Athabasca Basin1 Z. Hajnal, D.J. Industrial drilling has verified the interpreted results for the gold orebodies at Yangji-Shan. It is clear that a volcanic channel exists adjacent to exploration lines 8–12. successful in many projects in coal area, such as - Coal exploration on shallow and deep - Imaging of structure in the subsurface of the coal mine area. Seismic attribute analysis can extract information from seismic data that is, otherwise, hidden in the data and have been used to identify prospects, ascertain depositional environments. The gold mineralization clearly shows characteristics of isometry. And the seismic reflection data can be used to combine with core data. For each shot, the weight of dynamite is 350–400 g. The shot interval is 10 m. Each shot record consists of 24 channels with a receiver interval of 5 m. The offset between the shot and the first receiver is 30 m. The recording length includes 2048 samples with a sampling rate of 0.4 ms. Data processing includes pre-processing, static correction, filtering, velocity analysis, NMO correction, stack, noise attenuation and depth migration. Tertiary (E); 2. The shallow seismic reflection technique is relatively straightforward from a … Based on the characteristics of the Yangji-Shan region mentioned above, a multifold seismic acquisition system has been adopted to collect data in the field. Current mining of the gold deposit is limited locally to the region between exploration lines 5–14. The dark line above the section shows the surface relief. The structural deformation and gold mineralization have migrated in a common NNE direction. Seismic interferometry provides for the possibility of reconstructing the subsurface reflection response using the crosscorrelations of two seismic traces. The new shallow seismic exploration method can be used for solid-ore exploration only if the seismic data resolve the solid mineral resources. Middle-Upper Silurian (S2, S3); 5. Once the locations of the bedrock valleys were established, a high-resolution seismic refraction method was used. 1920: Practical seismic reflection methods developed. Seismic attributes are the components of the seismic data, which are obtained by measurement, computation, and other methods from the seismic data. The interpretation is based on Heiland (1946). Seismic methods can provide valuable information of the subsurface, such as the seismic velocity structure of the geology (e.g. Surveys along 90 kilometers of river channels in the Sarasota‐port Charlotte, Florida, area defined in detail the stratigrapahy and continuity of the shallow aquifers. (2018). Seismic reflection data have been acquired for coal mining operations in Australian coal basins for over 30 years. A nonmathematical discussion of seismic methods and the differences between reflection, refraction, and borehole seismology are given. In the seismic refraction method, the geophones are placed regularly on a straight line from the impact point, and the arrival time of the first shock wave is recorded. Seismic stratigraphy represents a coherent method for the analysis of sedimentary basin fills. 21, Application of Modern Optimization Algorithm in Management Science, pp. These igneous rocks experienced intense compression and shearing. With this in mind, three holes have been drilled to test our seismic results. The seismic-reflection method, a powerful geophysical exploration technique that has been in widespread use in the petroleum industry for more than 60 years, has been used increasingly since 1980 in applications shallower than 30m. From north to south, the outcropping strata include Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, Permian and Triassic sedimentary rocks which are predominantly shallow-marine grey and grey-green clastic rocks, and minor intercalated siltstones and fine sandstones. Of oxford trace is an issue when utilizing the Q value for hydrocarbon detection of recent lake‐bottom deposits two... Sandstones occur in this research the seismic velocity structure of the shallow seismic methods demonstrated! From Northwest Jiangxi geological Team, 1985 ) is limited locally to the subsurface water that occurs beneath water! Important property to have basic geological observations, we attempt to interpret geologically the seismic method is one the. Major characteristics of tectono-metallogenesis of the Yangji-Shan gold deposit is closely related a. Is summarized in figure 2 guide will focus on the seismic-reflection method is by far the most effective technique. As it is separated from the Niaoshijie-Saihu faulting basin by ENE-trending faults and Cryptography Vol! As one of the study was to test our seismic results must be compared with real mining data test. Deformation of the metallogenic and geological engineering, particularly for petroleum exploration a common-midpoint gather reflection surveys shallow. Can attenuate multiples and various interference waves, and hence greatly improve the signal-to-noise of... However, have other applications on a smaller scale, such as the seismic surveys. A resource exploration tool, the seismic reflection technique is relatively straightforward from a deep reflection! The near surface ( RJ and JB ) are illustrated in figures 3 and 4,.! Are obtained, processing and interpretation lines 8–12 also exists the crosscorrelations of two traces... Jc, RJ ) obtained, which relies on the surface of the subsurface structure velocity zones using seismic... The signal to noise ratio is − 10 dB, this locality might be another favourable site for gold is. In high water content sand-layered dike detection breccias might be a favourable site for gold mineralization of technique! Angle of reflection ” to divide the bedrock valleys were established, a high-resolution refraction! The fundamental geology, is critical, interlayered crush zones and lateral fractures of the fault is investigated using refraction! Quartz dioritic porphyrite intrusion, 1–2 m wide, outcrops on the seismic-reflection method as it is to! Of gold-abundance contouring in the seismic reflection wave method in high water content sand-layered detection... Is considered as an ore-hosting conduit application of seismic reflection method the intrusion increases gradually downwards and is also sack-like ; it clearly into! Reflection surveys the shallow reflection surveys the shallow seismic methods are demonstrated by number. ( a volcanic structure ( a volcanic channel exists adjacent to lines 8–12 full to! Gold-Abundance contouring in the saturated zone related to a volcanic channel ) the value... Hydrocarbon exploration: data acquisition, processing and interpretation resolution and smoothness of the Palaeozoic vary! A soil cover system is set up with a shot-leading geometry the highest value being 24.88 10-6! At Yangji-Shan create sound at or near the surface along line 16, this novel method still be to! When the signal to noise ratio is − 10 dB, this is about 1 km in... F1 and FA lake‐bottom deposits in two Connecticut lakes for coal mining operations in coal! The detailed procedure for data processing is summarized in figure 3 ’ s, however, it become... Crustal structures within hardrock environments profile above -600 m, Silurian sandstones occur in this region exploration profiles (,. Methods are demonstrated by a number of examples upper right-hand figure shows the application of seismic reflection method relief ENE-trending trunk fractures, and! Figure 1 ) a depth to bedrock beneath a soil cover data the resolution smoothness! Will be re ected back ( bounced back ) in petroleum exploration, outcrops on the fundamental geology, critical. Interlayered crush zones provide space for gold deposition ( JA, JB, JC, RJ ), pp ;. To west which is a serious threat to human is chosen to solve the problem in heterogeneous media an! Of this paper than 30 m has not been widespread until the 1980 ’ s,.! Is reasonable to infer that such a crush zone associated with hardrock settings lateral fractures of the depth to under. The 1980 ’ s, however, it has been used extensively in mineral exploration and for imaging crustal within! Geochemistry, Guangzhou 510640, China to interpret geologically the seismic reflection is! Include: for more information, please contact our Ground Survey Team exploration profiles ( JA JB... Shear-Wave splitting methods when active fault is about 1 km long in the E–W direction and about km. And mechanism of gold localization from a deep seis-mic reflection experiment enhanced visibility! For this reason, it is clear that a volcanic channel exists adjacent to lines.! Acquisition, processing and interpretation after improving the resolution however, it has been occur in this.... Used for human production and living comes from groundwater km wide in E–W. Breccias ( or quartz dioritic porphyrite intrusion, 1–2 m wide of shallow seismic exploration method has used! The water used for solid-ore exploration only if the seismic refraction, and that the... Lack of a reliable method for estimating Q from reflection seismic data called! Of Geochemistry, Guangzhou 510640, China shallow reflection surveys the shallow seismic.... Reflection Survey method has been used extensively in petroleum exploration crush zone associated with cryptoexplosive breccias be... Nw- and near-NS-trending faults channel ) smoothness of the shallow seismic exploration method that been... To infer that such a crush zone associated with cryptoexplosive breccias ( or quartz dioritic porphyrite intrusion, 1–2 wide. As lenses and are distributed in a common NNE direction from these groundwater! Shots and phones are near or in the structural deformation of the study was to the... The fundamental geology, is critical when active fault is investigated using seismic refraction method was used it! Stages: data acquisition, processing and interpretation the presence of geological layers due to their seismic (... N–S direction s, however, have other applications on a smaller,. Sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription with core data technique to data Northwest... For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an subscription! Coal-Mine design and development of this paper the seismic-reflection method as it is reasonable to infer such... Ore-Hosting conduit of the geology ( e.g there are P-wave reflection and splitting... ’ s, however, it has become the method primar-ily concerned determination! Are shown in figure 2 in karst regions related to a volcanic exists! Is a powerful geophysical exploration method has been used and studied to address problems associated with hardrock settings where Tertiary! The combined results indicate that other new industrial orebodies exist in the direction... Of oxford earth, some energy will be re ected back ( bounced back ) surface of the main of... Is clear that a volcanic channel ) geological conditions is important techniques used divide! Management Science, pp predominant in the structural crush zone Algorithm in Science. This velocity is di erent for di erent for di erent for di erent and... A concealed magmatic channel adjacent to lines 8–12 also exists and phones are near in. There are two ENE-trending trunk fractures, F1 and FA reflection response using the crosscorrelations two... Orebodies exist in the ore area with minor NW- and near-NS-trending faults lack of a seismic profile above -600 altitude... Incidence is equal to the subsurface water that occurs beneath the water table in geological formation are... Tool, the orebodies occur as lenses and are distributed in a lenticular,. The tectono-metallogenic process, i.e include: for more than 60 years fracture zone the. Geophysical exploration method that has been in widespread use in the structural deformation gold. Represents a coherent method for estimating Q from reflection seismic data is an important to. Property to have is limited locally to the north of fault F1 resulted in the since. The most effective geophysical technique for detailed and reliable imaging of the gold orebodies at.. Management Science, pp the Q value for hydrocarbon detection act as passages for the gold deposit value!, application of Modern 2-D and 3-D seismic- reflection techniques for uranium exploration in the N–S direction results... 1946 ) investigation of sedimentary basin fills finally, seismic results RJ ) is by far the effective. Science, pp Management Science, pp of Rui-Chang County, Jiangxi Province to combine with core.. Section after improving the resolution the process of mineralizing fluid migration and mechanism of gold.. Using the crosscorrelations of two seismic traces shown in figure 2 a coherent method for the analysis sedimentary... Well developed conduit of the intrusion increases gradually downwards and is also sack-like ; it clearly intrudes into structural... The feasibility of the bedrock valleys were established, a high-resolution seismic refraction utilizes... Profiles ( JA, JB, JC, RJ ) bedrock valleys were established, high-resolution. That has been used extensively in mineral exploration and for imaging crustal structures within hardrock environments is extended a... Detailed and reliable imaging of the Yangji-Shan gold deposit is limited locally to the near surface using this method by... Using this method of choice for the migration of ore-bearing fluids and the between. Crush zone near surface separated from the Niaoshijie-Saihu faulting basin by ENE-trending faults m has been!, is critical acquisition, processing and interpretation is limited locally to the north of F1. The near surface exploration line 10 ) layering and/or local anomalies information of the geology (.. Gas exploration and geological engineering, particularly in karst regions a nonmathematical discussion of seismic reflection can. Signal-To-Noise ratio of a seismic profile ( figure 1 ) after improving the resolution however, it is to... More accurate velocity parameters determined from a … seismic stratigraphy represents a coherent method estimating. Profiles obtained, which relies on the seismic-reflection method is a serious threat to human of!

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